Using Total Rewards to Motivate Sales Professionals During Uncertain Economic Times

Using Total Rewards to Motivate Sales Professionals During Uncertain Economic Times

For years, sales professionals along with their Human Resource and business line support partners have relied on incentive compensation and sales commissions as the primary tools to recognize and reward sales success. In today economic climate, however, most sales professionals will not enjoy large gains in pay for performance compensation as occurred in previous years. The Alexander Group, a well known sales growth consulting firm, predicts 4% increases in sales incentive compensation pay this year. When the escalating costs of food and gasoline quickly whittle away four percent increases, a sales commission plan quickly loses its desired motivational impact. What can sales professionals, HR business partners, and operations teams do to ensure organization success and continued employee motivation during these uncertain economic times?

Adopt a total rewards perspective. The concept of total rewards is that an organization has many tools for employee reward and recognition. It no longer all about base pay, bonuses, and benefits. Today proactive organizations use all five elements of total rewards to attract and retain employees.

These five elements,

Work / life balance,

Performance and recognition, and

Development and career opportunities, provide an organization with many non cash opportunities to motivate and retain its talent

Non cash total rewards can effectively recognize specific behaviors necessary for organizational success. Given the variety inherent in non cash rewards, they also permit greater flexibility for customizing the total rewards package to reach each employee motivational sweet spot. Moving beyond formal cash compensation programs also allows faster recognition opportunities.

The quick response time afforded by non cash rewards may be desirable to many employees, particularly Generation X and Y team members, to whom six months may seem like a lifetime. Depending on the type of non cash award provided, there may also be little or no income tax implication,
Using Total Rewards to Motivate Sales Professionals During Uncertain Economic Times
music to everyone ears. Lastly, non cash rewards allow an organization to recognize employee achievement without a possible negative impact on cash flow or increase to fixed costs. When developing a total rewards program, it important to consider these guiding key principles:

1. Link the program elements to your organization strategic plan, mission, and values. You don want to reward individual achievement if teamwork is a valued behavior. Likewise, use meaningful objectives such as reducing excess inventory, selling higher margin products, or increasing customer retention, to obtain the greatest return on investment (ROI) from the program.

2. Include both short and long term goals. Both play an important role in ensuring sustainable organizational success, particularly in a challenging economic climate.

3. Tailor the program to employees specific needs and wants. For example, while pre paid gas cards may possess high motivational power for someone in Texas, a New York City resident may instead appreciate a four day workweek. At the same time, someone in Chicago may prefer cross training opportunities. Build a variety of rewards into your toolkit for maximum ROI.

4. Ensure that line of sight exists between the employees job duties, their goals, and their rewards. An employee must be able to influence and achieve his / her goals through regular work activities. Sales professionals and their business line partners must move beyond the traditional base + bonus + benefits mindset to be successful in today economy.

By considering all the possible compensation elements or total rewards sales professionals open up a world of compensation opportunities that are better tailored to their needs, both professionally and personally. Proactive, engaging organizations use a total rewards approach to attract, retain, and motivate the best possible talent. Using a total rewards approach ensures a win win work environment for both parties.
Using Total Rewards to Motivate Sales Professionals During Uncertain Economic Times

Using Tie Downs to Increase Sales

Using Tie Downs to Increase Sales

If you could get people saying “yes” to almost any marketing statement of your choosing long before they even get to the close that would be valuable to you, right?

Did you find yourself agreeing with the last two questions? You just experienced a sales technique called “tie downs.” One very old direct sales principle is to get people to say yes to multiple little questions. This gets them agreeing with you and also gets them used to saying yes. Psychologically, they will then be more likely to say yes when you ask for the sale. One sales technique for achieving that is the tie down.

Why use a technique from direct sales in direct marketing? In a famous advertising and marketing story, Albert Lasker was a junior partner at the Lord and Thomas advertising agency in 1905 when he read a note from John E. Kennedy declaring that Kennedy knew the secret of what advertising is. Kennedy, a former Canadian mounted policeman, was new to copywriting and not yet known in advertising circles. But by an interesting quirk of fate, this was the question Lasker had been trying to figure out. Lasker met Kennedy, and Kennedy declared that the secret is, “Advertising is salesmanship in print.” Lasker and Kennedy went on to revolutionize advertising and marketing forever with those words, and Lord and Thomas became one of the most famous advertising agencies of the day.

No matter how many people are visiting your website and reading your marketing material, you are still talking to only one person at a time. You are still selling one person. This sounds like a simple concept, but many advertising and marketing people still don get this secret. That means that if you understand this, you have an advantage in Internet marketing. You understand that advertising is salesmanship in print. And you know that you just need to talk with this one person and get their agreement to purchase your product. And with the power of the Internet, you can do this with dozens, hundreds, even thousands per day.

Tie downs are one of the first tools to add to your new salesmanship toolbox. A tie down is a short phrase that can be added to a statement to turn it into a question. You use a tie down to turn a point that you want to make into a question that your prospect will agree with. It one way of getting your prospective customer to start saying yes long before you go for the close.

A few examples of common tie downs include:

Isn it?

Wouldn it?

Wouldn they?

Wouldn you?

Aren they?

Aren you?

Wouldn you agree?

Don you agree?

Can you?

Couldn it?

Doesn it?If you have been marketing for very long, you have heard about the concept of “features versus benefits.” Features are what your product has or does. Benefits are why your prospective customer would want those features. What will your product do for them? For example, if you have something that is metal instead of plastic, metal might be a feature. But the benefit might be that it is more durable, longer lasting, or unbreakable.

A common practice on web pages that are written as sales letters is to use a bullet list to present features or benefits. Let just imagine a couple bullet points for some imaginary “tie down creator” software. Most people would write the bullets as features. A couple features might look like this:

Creates tie downs automatically

Adds tie downs to the end of every statement in a list of statements

Not very exciting bullets, are they? (Wow. there an example of a tie down that I want you to say “no” to!)

Now let imagine how someone might write a couple bullets as benefits:

Get your prospective customers nodding their heads in agreement with every major point in your sales copy!

Get a prospect to say “yes” to almost any marketing statement of your choosing long before you get to the close!

That an improvement over writing the marketing bullets as features, isn it? But although that might get their interest and even get them thinking of how they could use the product, it doesn build agreement yet. Let try wording them a little differently:

If you could get your prospective customers nodding their heads in agreement with every major point in your sales copy, that would be likely to increase your sales, wouldn it?

If you could get people saying “yes” to almost any marketing statement of your choosing long before they even get to the close that would be valuable to you, right?
Using Tie Downs to Increase Sales

User or SEO Friendly

User or SEO Friendly

Search engines robots (or spiders, crawlers) and live users see a Website in a different way, and sometimes it happens that your Website looks very user friendly but it TMs absolutely inappropriate for SE. If you start doing search engine optimization (SEO) for the Website you may find it to be a very hard and thankless task ” the SEO ed site looks boring and looses its charm and unique style. How to keep the balance? I will give you 5 tips that will help you to make your site friendly both for users and search engines.

Tip 1.

In SEO text content is the main factor and you must give it the best place on your home page. What is the best place? Remember how a spider follows the page ” it starts from meta tags collecting necessary information about the page from content of tag head and then index the content of tag body. It has only few seconds to spider the code so the text content must be placed in the fist 1/3 of the code to be indexed well until the robot quits the page and follows its further way.

Usually HTML page has table structure and many Website designers like to place image banner in the header of the page, then horizontal or vertical menu comes, and only then text section appears. It TMs wrong structure and it must be changed if you want your site to be SEO friendly. The text must contain your main keywords but at the same time must be user friendly ” readable, easy to understand and interesting. How to keep the balance? For example, your Website is about new and used cars, car dealers, and car spare parts. don TMt try to hide it playing with color of text and background or font size, using layers, styles, etc. ” sooner or later you will be caught by search engines and penalized. Better aim all your efforts at making this piece of your home page nice and user friendly. graphical element that must attract attention of users.

I have given you simple examples how to balance text content for users and robots. You can try your own options basing on the general idea.

Tip 2. at your Website are needed for users to attract their attention and give them better understanding of the site theme. However search engines also pay attention to images, namely to their names and tag alt. It will be considered as spamming! Use common sense and name images according to their content but with relation to your keywords. Also remember that Google and other similar search engines also index the images and show them in the search results, so keep the naming rational and appropriate and it will give good results to your Website.

The same thing is about using text in alt tag. Simple placing of all your keywords in alts of the images can only be considered as spamming and your site can be penalized. Use normal short phrases that will give users better understanding of what your site is about if they have difficulty with viewing images, and place your main keywords in the phrases. Make it look normal and rational.

Title and description

Most users don TMt pay attention to your Website title (shown in the title bar of browser) while visiting it. But they do when they search information in search engines and go through the search results ” your site is shown there with its title and description by which users decide is it worth visiting. That TMs why the title and description must reflect theme and content of your site 100% correctly and be understandable, catching, and promising for users.

But what TMs about search engines? I think it is not secret that content of the tag title plays the greatest role when search engines sort your site among other search results. Having certain keywords in the title gives your site better position for these keywords. But it TMs not correct to just place your keywords in the title using or even not using commas. It TMs a kind of art to find balance between wish to be 1 in search engines and fear to be caught for spamming.
User or SEO Friendly

Use eBay to Promote Your Direct Sales Business

Use eBay to Promote Your Direct Sales Business

Curated By Laurie Ayers Leave a Comment

Many direct sales companies prohibit the practice of selling their company product line on eBay or other online auctions. Yet why not use that auction vehicle to sell your non direct sales items and then include a company catalog and sample along with the winning item?

You never know where your next customer is going to come from. You already know that anyone who wins your eBay auction is already comfortable making purchases online. Its not going to cost you anything extra to include some of your business marketing collateral with the package that contains the red leather boots or Laverne and Shirley DVD that you just sold.

You can also create an About Me page at eBay to tell the world about yourself and your interests. You can use this page to:

. Let the eBay community know who you are.

. Show off your fabulous finds.

. Display your items up for bid.

. Describe your favorite hobby.

eBay allows only a few links from a listing page because the primary purpose of the listing page is to describe the item for sale. The About Me page is a permitted link because it lets others in the eBay community learn more about the seller, helping the buyer to make a more informed decision prior to purchase.

Now that you know the rules as far as eBay is concerned with regard to linking; and hopefully you fully understand your direct sales company policies and procedures as far as selling on eBay is concerned. Since you know what you cant do ” that should also mean that you know what you can do.

Think outside the box to get to your target market. If you sell candles through your direct sales company,
Use eBay to Promote Your Direct Sales Business
then find a non DS candle either from your own closet or from the thrift store, and list that for sale with a $.99 opening bid. Why? Because anyone who bids on and wins that candle will most likely already enjoy candles. True you may not make much of a profit on that auction item after considering fees, yet its given you a free opportunity to include a catalog and sample of your direct sales candles.

I wouldnt invest too much time using this method of advertising your direct sales business. Yet if you already have a possession that youre going to list on eBay then take full advantage of the sale and legally promote your direct sales business.
Use eBay to Promote Your Direct Sales Business

Usa Vacations

Usa Vacations

The United States is one of the largest countries, geographically speaking, in the world. It encompasses a vast land area with several distinct climatic zones. It also boasts majestic mountains, thriving cities, beautiful beaches, dense forests, scenic deserts, and everything in between.

The impressive natural beauty and the good, friendly citizens make the USA one of the world’s top vacation destinations. To increase its drawing power, many travelers from across the world are able to use the Internet to create discount vacation packages for destinations in the USA. Discount travel sites use their travel expertise to help customers locate the best deals when traveling in the US.

Discount travelers to the United States will definitely want to visit some of the many exciting, busy cities this country is famous for. New York City is one of the world’s centers for business, fashion, entertainment, and art. One the other side of the country is San Francisco, one of the most unique and charismatic cities anywhere. Tourists can visit Las Angeles or Orlando for family fun, or spend a few nights gambling in world famous Las Vegas.

No travel package is complete without including some of the many natural wonders only found in the United States. The Grand Canyon in Arizona is absolutely breathtaking and worth a visit. If you want to commune with nature, Yellowstone National Park is home to a wide variety of rare and beautiful animal species. Autumn in New England is amazing, and summer in the Pacific Northwest can’t be beat. You might want to consult a discount vacation site for the best times to go and to locate the best deals, or you may want to look into joining a travel club if you are planning on making more than one trip.
Usa Vacations

Upgraded Wind Sensors and Improved Energy Efficiency

Upgraded Wind Sensors and Improved Energy Efficiency

In my continuing efforts to control my island’s weather I have rebuilt my GPRS weather station with upgraded ‘industry standard’ calibrated wind sensors and made several significant improvements for better energy efficiency.

This weather station is now a lot more accurate and uses three Arduinos working together to reduce power consumption, which is important as the whole system runs off a small solar panel. But surely using more microprocessors would use more electricity, not less?

“Not so”, replies Tecwyn Twmffat, since we have one small Arduino switching all the unnecessary sensors and other modules off until they are needed. What’s the point of taking temperature and pressure readings every five seconds? There is none! . So turn them all off! . Actually, the only sensors that do need to be working 24/7 are the anemometer and the rain gauge, which will quite happily run on one tiny, miniscule, ultra low power Arduino Nano.

This instructable is the latest stage in on going project that has it’s development history in five other previous projects:Step 1: Features

Anemometer (calibrated) Wind vane (low torque, low energy, high accuracy) GPRS 2G data transmission Power saving ‘sleeping Arduinos’ Power saving buck convertor 12v to 5v supply Soil moisture Soil temperature Air humidity Pressure Rain Outside temperature Battery voltage Forecasting by calculating pressure swing Webpage data display Autonomous solar powered no wifi or grid power required Removable TFT display for debuggingStep 2: Parts

A100LK anemometer . 2nd hand items sometimes available on W200P wind vane . Hackable Prototyping BoardRain gaugeMAX GRIP 004 box 350 x 230 x 86H mm 3/4″ overflow pipe tank connector 3/4″ overflow pipe stainless steel filter ANT1 Antenna Arduino Nano Rev3.1 Adafruit Atmega32u4 Breakout Board variant variant 6; part Operates 1.8″ TFT screen BATT1 LiPoly Battery (1300mAh) C1 Electrolytic Capacitor voltage 16V; package 100 mil [THT, electrolytic]; capacitance 470F C2 Ceramic Capacitor voltage 6.3V; package 100 mil [THT, multilayer]; capacitance 100nF C3 Electrolytic Capacitor voltage 16V; package 100 mil [THT, electrolytic]; capacitance 100F C4 Ceramic Capacitor voltage 6.3V; package 100 mil [THT, multilayer]; capacitance 100nF C5 Electrolytic Capacitor voltage 16V; package 100 mil [THT, electrolytic]; capacitance 1F C6 Ceramic Capacitor voltage 6.3V; package 100 mil [THT, multilayer]; capacitance 100nF D1 Rectifier Diode package 300 mil [THT]; type Rectifier; part 1N4001 DS1 DS18B20 1 Wire Temperature Sensor Probe Cable J1 Screw terminal 3 pins package THT; pins 3; hole size 1.0mm,0.508mm; pin spacing 0.137in (3.5mm) J2 Piezo Speaker J3 Screw terminal 3 pins package THT; pins 3; hole size 1.0mm,0.508mm; pin spacing 0.137in (3.5mm) J4 RJ11 Jack package rj11 6; variant pth; target RJ 11; part RJ11 Rain Gauge J5 Screw terminal 2 pins package THT; pins 2; hole size 1.0mm,0.508mm; pin spacing 0.137in (3.5mm); part Soil Probe Part1 Adafruit FONA Mini Cellular GSM Breakout variant UFL Part2 Arduino Mega 2560 (Rev3) type Arduino MEGA 2560 (Rev3) Part3 Arduino Nano (Rev3.0) type Arduino Nano (3.0); part MASTER Part4 BME280 Breakout variant BME280; power 3.3V Part5 VERTER 5V USB Buck Boost variant screw Power plug1 Power plug Q1 NPN Transistor package TO92 [THT]; type NPN (ECB) R2 100 Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 100; pin spacing 400 mil R3 200 Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 200; pin spacing 400 mil R4 10k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 10k; pin spacing 400 mil R5 10k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 10k; pin spacing 400 mil R6 Rotary Potentiometer (Small) package THT; track Linear; size Rotary 9mm; type Rotary Shaft Potentiometer; maximum resistance 1k R7 4.7k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 4.7k; pin spacing 400 mil R8 1k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 1k; pin spacing 400 mil R9 100k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 100k; pin spacing 400 mil R10 10k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 10k; pin spacing 400 mil R11 10k Resistor package THT; tolerance 5%; bands 4; resistance 10k; pin spacing 400 mil S1 SWITCH MOMENTARY 2 package reed_switch_plastic; variant pth_reed2; part Rain guage TFT2 1.8″ TFT Display with uSD U3 RELAY package relay jzc; variant pth4 U7 RELAY package relay jzc; variant pth4 U8 RELAY package relay jzc; variant pth4; part Finder 30.22.7.005.0010Step 3: How It Works

Improved energy efficiency is achieved by using more energy efficient sensors, especially the wind vane, and swapping out the old power regulator with a ‘buck convertor’ switching type. The old regulator used to get fairly hot and heat = energy loss . The buck convertor does not get hot!. Improved coding has allowed complex float numbers to be communicated between the Arduinos via the I2C bus, which gives accuracy to 2 decimal places.

Of the three Arduinos in this design, one just operates the TFT screen and can be removed after all debugging has been done. The small, second, ‘Master’ Nano takes readings of wind speed via the Arduino ‘pulse in’ command and rainfall is monitored on an ‘interrupt’ so that not a single drop of rain is ever missed. The other interrupt on the master monitors a call back from the Arduino Mega slave, which tells it when data has successfully been transmitted to the Interweb. On successful transmission, the values for wind speed, wind direction, volts and rainfall are reset to zero. If transmission fails for any reason, wind speed and rain are kept in the memory for the next transmission attempt so no important data is ever lost. The third Arduino, a Mega 2560, controls the FONA GPRS module and other sensors such as humidity, pressure and temperatures.

Eventually, the data ends up being displayed on a web page HERE .

The following code snippet shows how the energy hungry Mega and Fona modules are turned off after the data has been transmitted via GPRS. The schematic snippet shows the actual connection between D5 and D2 coloured orange.

while (degree(cycleTimeSet +3)) // This stops the callback from coming on at start of program or when mega is turned on.
Upgraded Wind Sensors and Improved Energy Efficiency

Unusual Facts and Trivia About Some Classic Sitcoms

Unusual Facts and Trivia About Some Classic Sitcoms

In the pilot, Danny’s arrested in Mayberry by Andy Taylor, who’s not only the sheriff, but the justice of the peace, newspaper editor, and the mayor (in the pilot). ‘Andy Taylor” was such a hit, that an entire series was built around him.

When Don Knotts saw the pilot, he thought that Andy should have a deputy and called to make the suggestion history was made!

The pilot episode’s town drunk was Hill Hoople, played by Frank Cady, who rose to greater fame as storekeeper Sam Drucker, featured on both Green Acres and Petticoat Junction. Once the series went underway, the town drunk was of course, Otis Campbell, played by Hal Smith.

Golden Girls was the 11th TV series for Betty White.

Ted Danson enrolled in (graduated from) bartender’s school for his role as Sam Malone in Cheers. And he actually finished second (!) in his class at the AmericanBartendingSchool.

The show’s creators didn’t think Danson looked very athletic, so his character became an ex baseball player; Sam Malone was originally supposed to be an ex football player.

Cheers had a total of 275 episodes (1982 1993).

Keenen Ivory Wayans had a bit part in episode 2!
Unusual Facts and Trivia About Some Classic Sitcoms

After the fifth season, Shelley Long left the series.

The original pilot for All In The Family was under the title Those Were The Days. Another working title was Justice For All (The series was based on a British sitcom).

The Bunkers were originally known as the Justice family.

The series total of episodes was 204 (1971 1979).

The success of episode no. 44, “The Bunkers and the Swingers”, was partially responsible for the creation of Three’s Company.

It was Jackie Gleason himself who came up with The Honeymooners title and concept.

Ralph Kramden, Gleason’s character was originally a cop, but Gleason changed him to a bus driver he felt they get more upset.

The series ran from 1955 1956 (39 episodes in the original syndication package).

Jeffersons star Isabel Sanford, who played Sherman Hemsley’s wife (Louise or ‘Weezie”) was actually 21 years older than he was! When the series premiered in January 1975 (to 1985, for a total of 253 episodes), she was 57 and Hemsley was 36.

Series regular Roxie Roker was the mother of rock star Lenny Kravitz.

Matthew Broderick was first choice for the role of Alex P. Keaton on :Family Ties. Broderick turned down the TV role, because his father, actor James Broderick (Family TV series, among other things) was gravely ill in New York City. His son didn’t want to leave him.

The Clampett mansion on The Beverly Hillbillies had 32 rooms and 14 bathrooms!

How did Mr. Ed talk? The actual technique remains a secret to this day!

Clint Eastwood (then known for the TV western series Rawhide) was one of the few actors to work with both Mr. Ed (as a guest star) and Francis the Talking Mule (Francis In the Navy, 1955).

In the 1950s, the sponsor’s commercials were not only done by the actors, but the plugs were actually worked into the story lines of the show.
Unusual Facts and Trivia About Some Classic Sitcoms

Unlock The Beauty While On Sri Lanka Tour Package For 1 Week

Unlock The Beauty While On Sri Lanka Tour Package For 1 Week

Find Out The Best Suitable Sri Lanka Tour Package For 1 Week

Choosing a destination for a vacation is somewhat a tricky thing. You need to pay attention to many reasons before moving ahead. First of all you need to see the destination where you are going to spend your vacation. Selecting a destination should be done carefully. As you are going to spend money and time so you need to get the best of everything. Ultimately it should be a memorable experience for you. Why not thinking of spending your vacation on the stunning pearl of the Indian Ocean? You can spend 1 week in Sri Lanka and gathers bucket full of unforgettable memories for no doubt.

Why you think 1 week in Sri Lanka is the best option? There are many reasons for that. Beaches, hill country, culture, history, adventure sports,
Unlock The Beauty While On Sri Lanka Tour Package For 1 Week
Cuisines and Nature and Wild life are the best reasons for you to arrange Sri Lanka tour package for 1 week. You can get variety of unique experiences while your stay in Sri Lanka. All these places are with full of stunning and fascinating attractions and there are providers who arrange 1 week tour packages for Sri Lanka with a combination of all.

How To Organize A Memorable Tour To Sri Lanka

When you are thinking of Sri Lanka tour package for 1 week inform your provider and get it customized according to your preference. There are travel partners who do 1 week tour packages for Sri Lanka as per customer wish. There are certain areas and cities which you should ask your travel partner to include on your 1week in Sri Lanka tour. To be honest, Sri Lanka is a paradise with full of things to explore and admire. It hard for you too to select. Make sure to cover Central province which covers the hill country and you can taste a Ceylon cup of tea for a change. Then to southern province to get the touch of golden sand beaches and finally the western province where you can have the experience of religious attractions and pay some time for shopping.

Include Colombo, Kandy, Galle and Nuwara Eliya in your Sri Lanka tour package for 1 week to get the maximum benefit for your spending. In all these cities you will get different kind of attractions and if you are planning to take your kids on this tour you need to inform that to your travel partner who do 1 week tour packages for Sri Lanka. There are certain places where you can visit with kids and give them a experiences as well, make sure you keep in touch with your travel partner on this. Sri Lanka is world famous for its delicious and mouthwatering authentic cuisines. Spare some time for that too. With all these you will have a wonderful time over there which will be an investment.
Unlock The Beauty While On Sri Lanka Tour Package For 1 Week

Universal Studios Wedding Packages

Universal Studios Wedding Packages

Looking for Universal Studios wedding packages? What a romantic place for a honeymoon! Contact the theme park itself for a wedding specific package, or you can search online for vacation information.

In Florida, destination weddings are increasingly popular. With Florida’s semi tropical climate and year round sunshine, it’s no wonder so many people choose to get married there. Plus, Florida offers not only an array of theme parks, but also beaches, lush foliage, and fun cities to visit.

Universal Studios wedding packages are a great way to celebrate. There are so many hotels nearby; it can be hard to choose just where to stay. Whether you choose to stay on site, or on nearby International Drive, your honeymoon will be as memorable as can be when you visit Universal Studios as a couple.

Finding Universal Studios Wedding Packages

Finding Universal Studios wedding packages is easy. First, check with Universal Studios hotels to see what types of services they offer. You can also contact other area hotels for information about their packages. Your travel agent, online travel site, or wedding planner will also offer a wealth of information for you.
Universal Studios Wedding Packages

Units of radioactivity

Units of radioactivity

For the quantitative measurement of different aspects of radioactivity, there are a substantial number of units of radioactivity. The number is relatively high because the aspects include the energy of a radiation source, as well as the effect of ionizing radiation in air, absorbed in arbitrary materials, and specific effects on biological systems. Doubling the number of units is the reality that they are defined both for the International System of Units (SI) and in “traditional” or “customary” units.

Properly interpreting the units can be quite complex. A given quantum of ionizing radiation will have different effects not only due to the type of radiation, which is considered in the computation of the units of biological effect, sieverts and rems, but also due to the energy level within a radiation type. Fast, medium speed and slow neutrons, for example, have different biological effects.

On arriving at an accident site, the Incident Commander tells the radiation survey specialist that a package of medical isotopes is on a crashed truck. It is labeled to contain 0.2 Ci or 7.4 x 109 Bq of Cs 137. She wants to know the risks it presents, and get advice on how to handle it.'[1]

This is a practical example how single units do not fully characterize a hazard. The basic quantitative measurements define the amount of potential radioactivity in the container: two tenths of a curie, or 200 millicuries, of cesium (Cs). This is equivalent to 7,400,000,000 Bq, or 7.4 GBq.

To assess hazard, you must consider the isotope involved. Cesium 137, widely used in medicine and industry, and also a likely contaminant from a nuclear reactor accident, is a beta and gamma emitter with a half life of 30 years. This half life means it will decay to 0.1 curie in 30 years.

Risk assessment requires a knowledge of the ionizing radiation emitted, and also the physical form of the isotope. Assume the package is intact, although some of the outer shielding may have torn off; there is no dispersal hazard. Beta and gamma radiation have different biological effects. They also have very different penetrating power. Beta particles are principally an internal hazard and a slight hazard to the outer skin. As long as the package contents are not dispersed, the beta aspect is relatively safe. Beta particles cannot travel, in air, for long distances.

Even though the biological effect of gamma rays is less, the radiation can travel long distances, penetrate light shielding, and, as an external source, is a hazard to living things.

“Practical steps that can be taken to reduce your internal risk

to Cs 137 would include wearing anti contamination

clothing complete with face mask or respirator (if the

responder is trained and respirator fitted.) Your exposure

to the gamma emitter in Cs 137 can be reduced by relying

on the exposure control methods of:

“Time spent in the radiation field may be lessened

by rotating the crew. Unless you have a designated

function, stay out of the radiation field. Put as much

shielding between you and the radiation source as possible.

The denser the material the better the shielding. For

example, a fire truck may provide better shielding than a

concrete block wall.”

As opposed to most of the other units, the SI unit becquerel[2] (Si) and the common unit curie (Ci) deal with the activity of the source, not the effects on radioactivity reaching its destination. Linked with area or volume measurements, these units are useful in giving a quantitative measurement of contamination of areas of the ground or volumes of water. When the source contains multiple isotopes, as with a reactor accident, it is most useful to state activity of each isotope.

Basic units

1 Bq = 1 event of radiation emission per second. Since this is a very small unit, common measurements are:

1 kBq = 103 Bq

1 MBq = 106 Bq

1 GBq = 109 Bq

The older unit, the curie (Ci), is equal to 37 GBq. Curies are large units, so common representations are
Units of radioactivity